Section 1: Growth of the Medieval Church
The church was the heart of medieval society. Early Christians described the spiritual church as catholic or universal. Europeans viewed the large number of local assemblies as parts of one large ecclesiastical organization. They conceived of the church solely as an outward, visible institution, which they called the Catholic Church.
The five cities that became patiarchates were Jerusalem (the beginning of the church), Antioch (the early center of the church), Rome (the head of the Roman Empire), Alexandria (the center of intellectual learning), and Constantinople (the capital of the eastern Roman Empire). Of these cities, Rome rose to preeminence.
The Roman Catholic Church called certain Bible characters and noteworthy Christians "saints."
The Roman Catholic Church based the papacy on the idea that Peter was the first pope but no historical evidence exists to prove that Peter ever served as the bishop of the church in Rome.
The Middle Ages became an age of spiritual ignorance because the people could not read and therefore had to look to the church for spiritual knowledge.
The Roman sacramental system grew out of a mixture of human tradition and Biblical teaching. According to the Roman Church, a sacrament is a religious act that automatically grants grace (spiritual benefit). They were considered necessary for salvation and could only be administered by the clergy. This sacramental system made the Catholic religion a matter of works rather than faith.
4. Holy Eucharist - where the wine and bread are changed to the blood and
body of Christ - transubstantiation.
6. Holy Orders
7. Extreme Unction - last rites
Most of the people of the Roman Empire spoke Latin. Jerome was the scholar whose Latin translation of the bible was called the Vulgate, which means "common" or well-known." It became the most widely-used bible of the Middle Ages, and later became the official bible of the Roman Catholic Church.
The clergy were divided into the secular clergy and the regular clergy.
We will write a compare and contrast paragraph in which you list and describe the duties of each branch.
Section 2: A New Western Empire
The Franks were the most powerful of the Germanic people settle in Gaul and Clovis became their strong leader: the "king of the Franks." Like Augustine, he converted to Christianity when he believed God had given him a military victory.
His descendants, the Merovingian kings earned the nickname of "do-nothing kings" because of their lack of prestige and accomplishments. The true power behind the "do-nothing kings" was the mayor of the palace.
Charles Martel was a mayor of the palace who, with the support of the pope, was offered the role of king. He won a great victory at the Battle of Tours when he defeated the Muslims.
Pepin the Short wanted to have the title of king as well as the powers - he appealed to the Pope for a decision - and he became king in 751
The Caro/lin/gian House - now ruled to Franks
The Pope asked Pepin and the latter defeated the Lombards and gave their land to the Pope - Germanic people in northern Italy (Lombardy)
This was called the Donation of Pepin - and then the Papal States
The Pope now was a temporal leader as well as a spiritual leader - they ruled as kings over this region for over the next thousand years
The Frankish kingdom reached its peak under Charlemagne. Charlemagne was the greatest king of the Carolingian line. His name means "Charles the Great."
Pepin the short died and then his son, Carloman died, too. Charles succeeded as sole ruler of the Frankish kingdom. -outstanding figure of the Middle Ages
Charlemagne means "Charles the Great" - killed prisoners in cold blood, married and remarried many times
MILITARY: Charlemagne rescued Rome (as his father had done before) from the Lombards - took the title "king of the Lombards" then defeated the Saxons (from northern Europe) - 30 years, and the Avars (nomadic Hun-like)
In the south he drove the Spanish Muslims back - he created an empire that stretched over most of the Western Europe - laid the foundation for France, Germany, and Italy.
POLITICAL: Charlemagne divided his empire into hundreds of districts or counties, appointed counts to supervise - administer justice, maintain peace, raise armies.
He created the office of missi dominici - king's envoys or messengers - subject to bribary therefore placed controls
Charlemagne's crowning - in 800 - while attending a Christmas Day service in Rome - the Pope crowned him Roman Emperor -
1. it revived the idea of a restored Roman empire which would again unite the territories of Western Europe
2. Also raised the question - whose authority is supreme - the state's or the church's - Charlemagne's authority was unquestioned then but later Popes said that they had crowned the king therefore theirs was higher
A revival of Learning
Charlemagne's love of learning prompted him to promote education
AYKS lah shah PEL (Aix-la-Chapelle) became the leading center of learning in the realm with best scholars - Alcuin from York, England. He encouraged the church to establish schools to upgrade the literacy of priests and monks. He sent forth the charter of education for the Middle Ages. This renewed interest in the Bible and works of classical writers.
Rediscovery and preservation of ancient works - preserved copies of the Bible
Monasteries were the primary centers for studying, copying, and preserving ancient manuscripts - handwritten copies of earlier works
Carolingian miniscule - became the model for our lower case writing today
Charlemagne instituted educational reforms that included upgrading the literacy of the priests and monks, renewing interest in the Bible and classical works, and developing a new handwriting style called Carolingian minuscule, that is the basis for our lower case writing today. Monasteries became the primary centers for studying, copying, and preserving ancient manuscripts. Alcuin was a famous educator from York who worked at Aix-la-Chapelle, the leading center of learning in the realm.
Charlemagne instituted a system of messengers that were called "missi dominici."
The treaty of Verdun in 843 split Charlemagne's empire into three separate kingdoms. The eldest son, Lothair, divided the land with his brothers and also received the title of emperor. Louis the German was made ruler of East Frankland and Charles the Bald the ruler of West Frankland.
Prepare a paragraph in which you explain why Charlemagne was called "the Great." Describe his contributions to the advancement of learning.
Section 3: The Feudal System
Feudalism was the form of government that prevailed in western Europe from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries. Feudalism was a system where land was granted in return for services. Land ownership was the basis of wealth and power during this time.
Nobles who were landholders were called lords. Through the ceremony called Homage, a man was made a vassal to the king and eligible for a fief (a land grant). Homage was the symbolic handing over of the land. The subdivision of land by a vassal was called subinfeudation.
The process of become a knight was serving as a page, then squire, then knight. Their strict code of behavior was called chivalry. The church decreed through the Peace of God that knights were forbidden from pillaging her property and extended protection to all noncombatants in society.
Vassals were called upon to make financial payments to their lords. This money was called aids.
Section 4: The Manor
The self-contained farming community controlled by a lord and farmed by his peasants was called a manor. The majority of those living on the manor were serfs who worked for the lord. The demesne was the lord's land. The peasant on a manor lived a life of poverty because of the rent, fees, and church tithes required of him.
1. What institution was at the heart of medieval society?
2. What does "Catholic" mean?
3. What were the names of the five patriarchates? Which rose to preeminence?
4. What term did Roman Catholics give to Bible characters or noteworthy Christians?
5. Why did the Middle Ages become an age of spiritual ignorance?
6. What is the term for the wine and bread becoming the body and blood of Christ?
7. What aspect of the Catholic religion emphasized the role of works?
8. Who were the most powerful of the Germanic peoples?
9. Who was the true power behind the "do nothing kings"?
10. What does Charlemagne mean?
11. What were Charlemagne's messengers called?
12. What did Charlemagne's educational reforms include?
13. What form of government prevailed in western Europe from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries?
14. What was the basis of wealth and power during the Feudal Age?
15. What is the correct order for becoming a knight?
16. What is the strict code of behavior for a knight called?
17. What is the self-contained farming community controlled by a lord and farmed by his peasant called?
18. What was the demesne?
19. Who were the majority of the people living on the manor?
20. What was the Latin translation of the Bible called?
21. What is the Catholic term for a religious act that automatically grants grace by its performance?
22. What nickname was given to the Merovingian kings because of their lack of prestige and accomplishments?
23. What was the Carolingian form of writing called?
24. What treaty split Charlemagne's empire into three separate kingdoms?
25. What was the ceremony in which a man became a vassal and thus eligible for a fief?
26. What church degree to knights forbade pillaging her property and extended protection to all noncombatants in society?
Which personalities are linked to the following:
"King of the Franks" who converted to Christianity
the mayor of the palace who was crowned king
Victory of the Battle of Tours
educator from York
divided land with his brothers and also received title of emperor
What is the term for:
a land grant
system of granting land in return for services
recipient of an estate
subdivision of land by a vassal
symbolic act of handing over land
strict code of behavior