WEEKEND NOTES FOR HONORS CLASS
Chapter 10: The Reshaping of Medieval Europe
I. Revival of Trade
During the early middle ages, _______________ activity diminished in Europe:
Towns diminished and the manor became the center of economic life. The manor did not require trade since it was self-sufficient or were bartered for.
a. Trade Routes
In the early Middle Ages, the __________ and the _______________ dominated Mediterranean trade.
Then _______________ and their large fleets seized trade rights so that cities like Venice, Pisa, and Genoa dominated. Italians became the middle man between Europe and the east.
Three routes: i) ____________ route - all water (India/China - Arabian Sea - northward up the Red Sea - overland to the Nile - to Mediterranean)
ii) __________l route - combined land and sea travel (far East to the Persian Gulf - caravans to Baghdad or Damascus - then port cities of Mediterranean or Black Sea)
iii _____________ route - "the Silk Road" (overland route across central Asia, connect Beijing and Constantinople)
Italy controlled the Mediterranean but _____________ (Belgium, France, Holland) was the marketplace of northern Europe = crossroads of northern European trade routes.
b. Markets and Fairs
Markets became the primary center for trade on a ___________________. Traders met once a week in village squares or along important highways. The serfs could sell their surplus produce there, and craftsmen could peddle their wares.
Trade fairs were ________________ or _______________ events and lasted from several days to weeks. They provided a meeting place for east-west trade: spices, silks, gems, cotton, linen, rugs, and dyes. Return trade was wool, grain, timber, fish.
The most important trade fairs were in the region of _______________ in northeastern France, where there was almost always a fair going on.
c. Money and Banking
_______________ gained wider use as a means of exchange, since bartering could not meet the new demands. Money increased trade and provided a stable value for the purchase and sale of goods.
Coins and their value differed widely and some, like the gold florin, were more accepted than others.
_______________________ grew in importance. They were specialists in assessing the value of foreign currency.
Moneychangers then became __________________ when people entrusted their money to them.
Kings, nobles, even popes, borrowed from the moneylenders using letters of credit (used like a _____).
The word "bank" come from the Italian "banca" meaning __________ - the table of the moneychanger.
d. The Medieval Church and Business Practices
What was the Roman church's view on economic activity and trade?
(include their ideas on poverty, profit, just price, usury, financial independence.
II. Growth of Towns
Renewed growth in the economy spurred the growth of __________, which were important centers for _________________.
Better farming methods led to better production which boosted Europe's population and towns.
a. Townsmen Gain Basic Freedoms
Merchants and tradesmen who lived in towns did not fit in with the feudal system; they were not lords or vassals, or serfs.
Townspeople joined together to secure local ________-government.
The privileges granted a town by a feudal lord were usually written down in a _______________.
1. Free Status - a man who lived in a town for a year and _____________ was free.
2. Exception from manorial obligations - usually made __________ payment instead
3. Town justice - won the privilege of running their own ___________
4. Commercial privileges - buy and sell ________________ in the town market
b. Merchants and Craftsmen establish guilds guaranteed
1. They banded together to protect their common interests - guilds.
2. They formed organizations called guilds to regulate business activity - they gained greater ______________, discouraged _________________, increased ________.
3. Guilds provided aid to members in need - schools, care for poor, widows, and orphans.
4. Guilds played an important part in town politics.
5. Two types of guilds: merchant guilds and craft guilds
6. Merchant guilds - gave merchants a monopoly on the town's trade so that outsiders couldn't trade there. They also fixed prices.
7. After time, the single guild broke up into many craft guilds - bakers, tanners, shoemakers, butchers, wheelwrights, etc. The craft guilds regulated hours, wages, employees hired.
8. They guaranteed the quality of their work and punished members who didn't maintain high standards.
9. Within each craft guild there were three classes of members:
i. ___________________ - young boy began training with master
ii. ___________________ - a day laborer - could earn wages as a skilled worker
iii. ____________ - required years of experience, and funds to open a shop; had to undergo an oral exam, present an example of work - a "master piece," and take an oath to the guild.
10. Towns formed associations to protect their commercial interests. Most famous was the Hanseatic League composed of more than seventy German cities - it sought to control trade in Sweden, Russia, Flanders, England. It became a powerful political force - negotiating treaties, maintaining a navy, waging war.
c. A New Social Class Emerges
1. With the growth of towns came the growth of a new middle class, composed of bankers, merchants, craftsmen, skilled laborers. These men of the town were called burgesses in England, bourgeois in France, burgers in Germany (burg = walled in town).
2. The middle class had freedom and money; they were energetic, independent, mobile, and growing in number and power.
3. The middle class contributed to the decline of the feudal system.
4. Social ranking shifted from being based on birth to who had the most money and goods, so the noblemen felt threatened.
5. By weakening the nobility's social position, the middle class also weakened their political power.
6. By the twelfth century, most towns had some degree of self-government.
7. The middle class desired the stable and uniform government of a national king rather than the localism of feudal lords.
8. Kings could now draw on support from the middle class in the towns rather than the nobles.
III. Read and Summarize: Medieval Learning and Art pp. 236 - 243
IV. Emergence of National States
Nation-states emerged in the late Middle Ages as people became more aware of common traditions, language, and religion - the foundation for national feeling.
With this came the rise of national monarchies - a symbol of national pride.
An independent king ruling a group of people who had common interests formed the basis of the early nation state. Royal power increased as feudalism declined. Differences among people became more distinct, boundaries solidified.
By 1500, the major states of Europe were established - the modern world was at hand.
War between England and France
During the 14th and 15th century, England and France fought the ___________________________' War: it started as a rivalry between feudal lords and ended as a rivalry between emerging nation-states. The war stimulated national feeling in the two countries and helped end feudalism.
The English holdings in France was an issue of contention
Phillip II reduced the size of English possessions but England still had the duchy of Aquitaine -
The French monarch tried to take possession of ___________________ (rich commercial) which threatened England's wool trade.
When the last ____________________________ king died without a male heir, war erupted.
__________________ (his mother was the sister of the three previous French kings) claimed to be the rightful heir to the French throne. The French nobles chose Philip VI instead.
English forces crossed the Channel and won victories in France due in part to new battle techniques and weapons.
The English relied on archers armed with longbows - the arrows could penetrate armor, had greater range and accuracy that conventional crossbows
At Crecy (kraySEE) the _____________________ was used for the first time.
The French were humiliated; The English didn't gain much because they were drained of resources.
The _____________ eventually won the war - the tide was turned by the nationalist spirit inspired by __________________. Joan believed that God had directed her to drive out the English and she roused the weak king to action. She was captured by the enemy and burned at the stake.
The English focus shifted to creating a nation-state at home; the French nationalism was bolstered and the French kings increased their royal powers.
In England: A civil war for the throne began between two families - the house of _________ (white) and the house of _______________ (red) - the War of the ___________
Henry Tudor defeated Richard III (who had the two princes murdered in the Tower of London) at Bosworth Field and was crowned Henry VII (in spite of being previously declared ineligible due to illegitimacy).
The ____________ were a powerful dynasty that established the power of the English monarchy and built England into a major European power.
In France: The Estates-General had allowed the king to levy a royal land tax called a taille (TAY yuh) to support the army. There was no check on the growing power of the French kings.
Reconquista in Spain and Portugal
Nation states did not develop quickly in the Iberian Peninsula - primarily a ___________ land
In the 11th century, a few non-Muslim states in the north began a concerted effort to drive out the Moors (Spanish Muslims)
By the late 13th century, warriors of the Reconquista (reconquest) had reclaimed the peninsula except for Granada
Three principle kingdoms emerged when the Moors withdrew: Portugal, Castile, Aragon - there was also struggle here between kings and feudal nobles. In each, a Cortes arose (like a parliament)
With growing towns and decline of feudalism, the power of the king was increased above the nobles and the Cortes
When Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married, they created the nation of ____________.
They firmly established their power in the new nation and began the Spanish ___________________ to systematically persecute Muslims and Jews, and later Christians
They drove the Moors out of Granada in 1492 - the same year that they sponsored _________________.
Disunity in Italy and Germany
Germany and Italy remained divided into many small regional states - geographical expressions, not states
Italy was divided among the kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, and powerful cities like Venice, Florence, Genoa, Milan. Despite political turmoil, the region prospered commercially and late gave birth to the ______________________.
Germany was divided into small territorial states after the Hohenstaufen family fell.
The office of emperor remained but power fell into the hands of the nobles
By the mid 1300's, a written constitution called the Golden Bull established the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire
(The Diet was the German parliament, Estates-General, or Cortes)
There were seven electors who chose the German emperor - they chose weak men that they could control, and didn't allow power to pass down through families
German electors especially sought to avoid national unity while other European countries strove for it
The Hapsburg family, however, did become powerful in the southern German states - they eventually became Austria. The Hapsburgs ruled from Vienna till after WW1.
After 1438, only members of the Hapsburg family were elected to the German throne
Maximilian I greatly enlarged the Hapsburg possessions through marriage: this included modern-day Belgium and Holland, and Milan, and then Spain (through his son's marriage to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) and territories in the her new world - all under Hapsburg rule
V. Decline of the Roman Church
During the 14th and 15th century, opposition against the authority of the Roman Catholic church grew - shifting loyalties from Pope to own nation; moral corruption
Kings no longer tolerated papal interference; the expansion of knowledge challenged church traditions
A critical spirit of inquiry replaced passive acceptance
The steady growth of wealth turned people from spiritual concerns to earthly gain
From its zenith under Innocent III, the papacy had fallen into disgrace - it lost its position of leadership in the church
The decline started under Pope Boniface VIII - he tried to control Europe like Innocent but times had changed
He suffered defeats against Philip IV when the latter levied taxes on French clergy and ignored the Pope's response; he also arrested a criminal bishop and had him stand trial
When Philip IV refused to release the bishop, the pope issued the famous papal bull (an official papal focument) called Unam Sanctam (1302) - it is necessary to salvation that every human being be subject to the Roman pontiff
Philip supported by the French defied the pope and accused him of heresy - they took the Pope captive and died of shock soon after he escaped
A Frenchman was elected to the papacy but he never went to Rome. He moved the capital to Avignon in France and it remained here for about 50 years - called the "Babylonian Captivity of the Church."
The popes were all French and under the control of the French kings
Nationalism caused the English, German, and Italians to resent the "French-controlled" papacy and they denounced the wealth and corruption at Avignon. Calls for reform came from across Europe.
The papacy returned to Rome in 1377 but the Pope died soon after.
The French-dominated College of Cardinals elected an Italian pope under pressure from a Roman mob, and months later declared a new pope who moved back to Avignon - so there were now two popes and each excommunicated each other - for forty years, this GREAT SCHISM divided the allegiance of the nations of Europe.
In 1409 - leaders met at _______ to resolve the schism; the council deposed both popes and appointed a new one. The previous two refused to relinquish their office and so now there were three popes
The Council of _____________ (1414-1418) finally resolved the issue. They deposed the claimants and elected Martin V as the sole pope - healed the schism and restored the papacy to Rome, but did not institute meaningful reforms.
Criticism continued against its doctrine and practices - and so the stage was set for the Protestant _________________.
Study Guide for Chapter 10
A. Match the following names/descriptions:
Joan of Arc
- humiliated by Philip IV
- earliest scholastic thinker; used logical arguments to prove God's existence
- Summa Theologica
- wrote about pilgrims traveling to Becket's shrine; gives a good picture of medieval English life
- wrote about an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise
- Sic et Non
- motivated the French to fight in the Hundred Years' War
- English scientist
1. Which area gained a monopoly on Mediterranean trade?
2. Why did moneychangers grow in importance?
3. What did a "just price" include?
4. What was the church's view on economic activity?
5. What were the economic principles brought about by the revival of trade and changes in business methods?
6. What influenced the growth of towns in Europe?
7. What were the three levels of membership in the craft guilds?
8. What was the Germanic league that gained control over the Baltic region?
9. What were the results of the development of the middle class?
10. What were the primary centers of education during the Middle Ages?
11. How did students of the Middle Ages choose schools?
12. What was the intellectual movement characterized by a renewed interest in theology and philosophy?
13. What characterized Medieval science?
14. In what form did vernacular literature first develop?
15. What were the art and literature of the Middle Ages most influenced by?
16. Francis of Assisi and Bernard of Clairvaux are both credited with writing medieval what?
17. Were these battles victories or losses for England?
18. Who stirred the French to nationalism?
19. What was the taille?
20. Who had the real power in Germany (as evidenced by the control of the Diet)?
21. What is the time period called where more than one pope claimed supremacy?
22. What was the purpose of the Council of Constance?
23. What term means to exchange goods for goods?
24. What Pope claimed supremacy in his Unam Sanctum?
25. What is the practice of charging interest for the use of lent money called?
26. What organizations formed to regulate business activities of a given school?
27. What family took control of Austria and her possessions?
28. What two people married, creating the nation of Spain?
29. What killed one-fourth of Europe's population during the fourteenth century?
30. What term means the common spoken language?
31. What were the wandering minstrels who traveled from castle to castle singing songs of love and adventure called?
32. Which weapon greatly aided the English during the Hundred Years' War?
33. What family ruled England as a result of the Wars of the Roses?
34. What is the Spanish effort to drive the Moors from Spain called?